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「空手道 唐手 カラテ Karate」定名命名起源對談翻譯 @ 1936 年 沖繩會議
「空手道 唐手 カラテ Karate」定名命名起源對談翻譯  @ 1936 年 沖繩會議




Type(Type) 2014/8/3 22:28 (Since 2014/8/2 14:57)

「空手道 唐手 カラテ Karate」定名命名起源對談翻譯 @ 1936 年 沖繩會議





這的對談片段,由 1960 年出版的「空手道 大補完 (by 遠山寛賢)」的附錄摘要出來
紀錄 1936 年間,沖繩空手道大師對於「空手」的命名定名對談,這個簡短的會對於
後來「空手道的定名」,產生了一定的影響。

時間: 1936/10/25, 16:00
地點: 沖繩那霸 昭和會館
主辦: 琉球新報

Karate Masters: Chomo Hanashiro, Chotoku Kyan, Choki Motobu, Chojun Miyagi, Juhatsu Kyoda, Choshin Chibana, Shinpan Shiroma, Chotei Oroku, Genwa Nakasone
空手大師:花城長茂, 喜屋武朝德, 本部朝基, 宮城長順, 許田重發, 知花朝信, 城間真繁, 小禄 緒亭, 仲宗根源和

其他與會貴賓(琉球新報等:
Guests: Koichi Sato, Zenpatsu Shimabukuro, Kitsuma Fukushima, Eizo Kita, Chosho Goeku, Gizaburo Furukawa, Sei Ando, Choshiki Ota, Kowa Matayoshi, Zensoku Yamaguchi, Tamashiro





對談開始


仲宗根源和:「當 Karate (カラテ, 空手道) 第一次引入日本本土(東京)的時候,空手道這個武術用漢字稱之為「唐手」,
這個名字聽起來像是外國的武術,當時廣泛被東京的練武者接受。
然而,有些人覺得「唐手」這種含有外來武術的名稱,似乎在教學上不太適當,
所以少部分道場把「空手道」用平假名拼出 Karate,而非用漢字。」

仲宗根源和:「目前東京的道場的現狀是,大部分使用「空手道(漢字 )」,另外也有不少還是維持「唐手(漢字 )」。」

仲宗根源和:「為了發展日本本土的武術,我覺得使用「空手(漢字)」代表 Karate カラテ 會比「唐手(漢字)」來的恰當。
當然「空手道/空手(漢字)」就是標準名稱,各位覺得呢?」


花城長茂:
「我們沖繩人,長久以來習慣用「唐手(Toodii / Tode)」來稱呼空手道,而非使用「Karate カラテ」,我們也習慣直接簡稱為「手 (dii / de)」,
代表這個武術,是用赤手空拳來戰鬥的意思。

小田: 「是的,我們也是慣用唐手(Toodii / Tode)


島袋:「仲宗根源和先生你好,
據我所知最近人們使用空手『道』來稱呼 Karate 這項武術,
這是否代表人們強調『空手』和『柔道、劍道』一樣有精神訓練的『道』部分呢?」



仲宗根源和「是的,他們用空手『道』來強調心靈方面的鍛鍊」


小田:「宮城長順先生你好,你會用『唐手(漢字)』來稱呼 Karate 嗎?」


宮城長順「是的,我會用『唐手(漢字)』,就和大部分人一樣來稱呼這武術;
那些來我家門口,請我教授他們這武術的沖繩子民們,都說『長順哥,請教我手(Tii/Te) 這武術!』
所以一般民眾會用「手」來稱呼 Karate。而我認為『空手(漢字)』在稱呼這項武術也很好」


宮城長順「正如仲宗根源和先生說的,例如『柔術』慢慢演化成『柔道』一樣,
在古中國,
人們原本稱功夫武術為『百打、散打、拳法』等等不同名稱,但現在主要有『功夫』講法;
所以不變的定律是,這些名稱,會隨著時代的演進而變化;因此我認為『空手道(漢字)』這名稱會比純『空手(片假名)』來的好。」

宮城長順「然而,我仍舊希望多聽一下大家的意見!
我們在大日本武德會沖繩分部,對這個爭議討論很多了...
所以,我們暫時擱置爭議,直接用『空手道(漢字)』來代表『唐手』這項武術。
空手道振興會快成立了,我們希望逐漸能夠有個正式的好名字來代表這個武術」


島袋:「宮城長順先生,您曾到中國學習武術嗎?」

宮城長順:「最初我沒有計畫到中國學『功夫』,但有一天我發現『功夫』非常棒,所以我就出發學習!」

島袋:「『手(Tii/Te)』這項武術,在沖繩是否存在一段時間了?」


宮城長順:「是的,沖繩的『手』這項武術,就像柔道、劍道、拳擊一樣,存在已久並不斷的演化!」


許田重發:「我同意仲宗根源和先生的意見,然而,我並不同意在今天會議就有『正式決議』。
目前大部分沖繩住民仍然用『唐手(漢字)』來代表空手道,我們應該多聆聽沖繩練武者和空手道研究者,
由多方的討論和研究團體徹底研究,才好做出結論。」



宮城長順:「我們並不急著在這個會議立即做出結論。」


又吉:「請各位表達真正的意見吧!」


花城長茂:「我在我的筆記本上,發現從 1905 年以來,我就用『空手(漢字)』來代表 Karate 這項武術。
例如 我用『空手組手(漢字)』來代表空手道對打。」


越來:「我想做個補充,Karate 在 1933 就被大日本武德會沖繩分部承認為格鬥武術之一。
當時,宮城長順大師是用『唐手(漢字)』來代表 Karate。
如果決定要改為『空手』,則之前的『唐手』相關文件等,可能都要改,
並且我們需要獲得大日本武德會總部的同意。」



仲宗根源和:「到現在為止,發言者都是沖繩在地人;
想聽一下佐藤先生的意見,佐藤先生是內地來的教育局局長。」


佐藤:「抱歉,我對於空手的知識不多,但我認為『空手(漢字)』會比較好,
『唐手(漢字)』相對來講根據並不多?」


古川:「用『空手(漢字)』對我們這些外地人來說,比較有吸引力,看起來有赤手空拳積極武術感覺;但如果用『唐手(漢字)』,我就比較沒有這類感覺。」


仲宗根源和:「瞭解;現在由福島先生發表意見,福島先生是軍團士官,軍方代表」


福島:「 用『空手(漢字)』比較容易從字面上瞭解;
『唐手(漢字)』的話就比較需要多花一番唇舌解釋,尤其對於新入門的練習者。」


小田:「的確,『空手(漢字)』大家都同意,但『唐手(漢字)』就有一些人反對」


宮城長順:「嗯,我曾經拜訪夏威夷武術界,
那邊的唐人對於『唐手(漢字)』比較有接受度。」



島袋:「在沖繩這邊,我們『手(Tii/Te)』和『唐手(Tootii/Tode)』來區別沖繩本地的空手道,和從中國帶回來融合本地武術的的空手道。」


仲宗根源和:「我想我們對於名稱的討論,已經有清楚的瞭解;
現在我們來討論『空手道的推廣』;
很可惜的是,目前來說,空手道還是在沖繩並非十分普及。
我們需要找出方法來推廣空手道,不論是學校的體育課或武術課。」


古川:「目前有很多的『流派 (Ryu)』,我想是我們應該不計算代價整合他們。
例如我知道首里流(Shuri Ryu)和那霸流(Naha Ryu)就有一點不太一樣。
我認為這修流派應該整合,並且統合出屬於日本空手道的型(Kata)
舉例來說,古代劍道約有 200 個流派,但經過整合,就是目前日本的劍道,且也有標準的劍道 Kata。如此一來,空手道才有辦法普及。」

古川:「舉例來說,我們應該定義出十種日語名稱的空手型,包含攻擊和防守的空手型等;
這樣一來,名實相符,推廣起來就容易。
另外,我也覺得要把空手道慢慢讓他變成一項「競技運動」!
所以我們應該研究如何讓他有比賽規則,讓他有標準的制服、標準的比賽型態等,
這樣推廣就會更普及!」


宮城長順:「古川,我同意你的意見。
你說的空手道「型」套路,我曾經在武德會沖繩分部成立時,把一些型的提案提給總部。 」

宮城長順:「至於空手道的道服這個議題,我們也同意儘快產出空手道的標準制服」

宮城長順:「另外,空手道的名詞定義這部分,我想我們會來會漸漸對他有所控制,
我會不斷的提倡這個理念,我也不斷的創造新的空手道技術藉以推廣他。」

宮城長順:「另外,關於『型』,我想傳統的『型』應該被好好的保留下來,畢竟他們是經典中的經典。如果要推廣到全國的,我們也可加入一些共容易更好的學習的新的『型』。」

宮城長順:「我們會同時創出並整理出一些『攻擊』與『防守』為主的『型』,
這些型適合小學、中學、大學等練習。」

宮城長順:「這些型,會由空手道振興會(Shinkokai)的成員們,來徹底實行並創新出來!
目前推廣振興會的成員包含,沖繩體育會和沖繩分部的大日本武德會」

宮城長順:「我們也有一些資深的弟子,對於推廣空手道很有興趣,
所以我們也會和這些弟子一起合作來推廣研究空手道!」

宮城長順:「如果各組織和專家,都能夠透徹的研究空手道,我們便可對於名稱和制服的問題,又更快的決定與結論」

宮城長順:「總之,舊有的空手型應該保留經典,新的空手型應該被創新!
要雙向進行,這樣推廣的阻力才會減少,推廣的力道才會增大!」


小田:「目前沖繩本地有多少個空手道組織?」



宮城長順:「有大日本武德會沖繩分部、沖繩體育會、首里體育會等等」

小田:「知花朝信先生,您的空手道道場,現在有多少學生?」


知花朝信:「我的道場約有 40 名空手道學徒。」


宮城長順: 「剛有提到一個意見要整合各種『流派』,如整合「首里流」和「小林流」
我個人認為這意見方向應該是錯的,因為沒有證據顯示整合有利有弊。」


宮城長順: 「然而,雖然我不贊同整合; 但有一些相同的地方,卻是存在可以努力的地方。

例如,基本的『型』(如三戰,轉掌、内蹯地/鐵騎)、進階的『型』(開手型 Kaishu Kata),這些型在各種流派都有,但在傳授時,有的『有系統和有方法』的傳授方式,
有的流派卻沒有。 我的老師『東恩納寬量』是系統方法來傳授我們這些型。」



小田:「還有其他空手大師也是去中國學習過拳法嗎?」


宮城長順:「我有聽過『松村宗棍』老師有到中國學過空手道。」


知花朝信:「我的老師把『内蹯地/鐵騎』當成基本型在傳授。」


小田:「本部朝基先生,您的空手道是誰傳授的?」


本部朝基:「我師從糸洲安恆、佐久間親雲上、松茂良興作等大師」

小田:「我認為您自己創立了自己的空手道?」


本部朝基:「 (笑)沒這回事,我並沒有自創自己的空手道。」

仲宗根源和:「好的,我們知道每位大師都同意建立空手道推廣組織,且,古川先生也告訴我們這類組織的必要性,所以我們覺得大家應該都同意這個計畫;所以會議結束後,會員們應該開始著手建立推廣的組織。」


Type(Type) 2014/8/2 18:29

原文:

這裡是英文原文(其實也是「日翻英」),出處是夏威夷大學 (2010 URL existed!)

不過 2014 年 URL 連過去已經 404 Not found
http://www.hawaii.edu/asiaref/okinawa/digital_archives/karate_museum.html

代碼:



Master Chojun Miyagi At The Meeting In 1936



Remarks: This is a part of the meeting records. It appears as an appendix in the book, "Karatedo Dai Hokan" written by Kanken Toyama. Pages 377-392 (Tsuru Shobo, 1960).



"The Meeting of Okinawan Karate Masters"



Time and Date: 4:00 pm, October 25, 1936
Place: Showa Kaikan Hall, Naha, Okinawa
This meeting was held by Ryukyu Shinpo Newspaper Publisher



Those who attended the meeting are as follows.



Karateka: Chomo Hanashiro, Chotoku Kyan, Choki Motobu, Chojun Miyagi, Juhatsu Kyoda, Choshin Chibana, Shinpan Shiroma, Chotei Oroku, Genwa Nakasone



Guests: Koichi Sato, Zenpatsu Shimabukuro, Kitsuma Fukushima, Eizo Kita, Chosho Goeku, Gizaburo Furukawa, Sei Ando, Choshiki Ota, Kowa Matayoshi, Zensoku Yamaguchi, Tamashiro



Genwa Nakasone: When karate was first introduced in Tokyo, the capital of Japan, "karate" was written in Kanji (= Chinese character) as "Chinese Hand". This name sounded exotic, and gradually accepted among people in Tokyo. However, some people thought this Kanji "Chinese Hand" was not appropriate at schools. In order to avoid the use of this Kanji, some karate dojo wrote "karate" in Hirakana (= Japanese phonetic letters) instead of Kanji. This is an example of temporary use of the word. In Tokyo, most karate dojo use the Kanji "Empty Hand Way" for karate-do, although there are still a few dojo using the Kanji "Chinese Hand." In order to develop Japanese martial arts, I think Kanji for "karate" should be "Empty Hand" instead of "Chinese Hand" and "Karate-Do" should be the standard name. What do you think?


Chomo Hanashiro: In the old days, we, Okinawan people, used to call it "Toodii" or "Tode", not "Karate." We also called it just "Tii" or "Te." It means fighting with hands and fists.



*Translator's note:
Pronunciation for the Kanji written as "Chinese Hand" has two ways:
1) Toodii or Tode (Okinawan dialect)
2) Karate
Pronunciation for the Kanji written as "Empty Hand" has only one:
1) Karate



Ota: We, too, called it "Toodii" or "Tode."



Shimabukuro: Mr. Nakasone, I hear nowadays people call "Karate-Do" for karate. Does this mean people added the word "Do" (= literally means the Way) to the name "Karate" for emphasizing the importance of spiritual training like Judo and Kendo?



Nakasone: They use the word "Karate-Do" in the meaning of cultivation of the mind.



Ota: Mr. Miyagi, do you use the word "Chinese Hand" for karate?



Chojun Miyagi: Yes, I use the Kanji "Chinese Hand" as most people do so. It has minor meaning. Those who want to learn karate from me come to my home and say "Please teach me Tii or Te." So I think people used to call "Tii" or "Te" for karate. I think "Karate" is good in the meaning of the word. As Mr. Shimabukuro said, the name "Jujutsu" was changed to "Judo." In China, in the old days, people called Hakuda or Baida for Chinese kungfu, Kenpo or Chuanfa (= Quanfa). Like those examples, names changes according to times. I think the name "Karate-Do" is better than just "Karate." However, I will reserve decision on this matter, as I think we should hear other people's opinions. We had a controversy on this matter at the meeting of Okinawa Branch of Dai Nippon Butokukai. We shelved this controversial problem. In the mean time, we, members of Okinawa Branch, use the name "Karate-Do" written in Kanji as "The Way of Chinese Hand." Shinkokai (= a karate promotion center) will be formed soon, so we would like to have a good name.



Oroku: Mr. Miyagi, did you go all the way to China for studying karate?



Chojun Miyagi: At the beginning I had no plan to practice kungfu in China, but I found the kungfu excellent, so I leaned it.



Oroku: Have there been our own "Te" here in our prefecture, Okinawa, for a long time?



Chojun Miyagi: There have been "Te" in Okinawa. It has been improved and developed like Judo, Kendo and boxing.



Kyoda Juhatsu: I agree to Mr. Nakasone's opinion. However, I am opposed to making a formal decision right now at this meeting. Most Okinawan people still use the word "Chinese Hand" for karate, so we should listen to karate practitioners and karate researchers in Okinawa, and also we should study it thoroughly at our study group before making a decision.



Chojun Miyagi: We do not make a decision immediately at this meeting.



Matayoshi: Please express your opinion honestly.



Chomo Hanashiro: In my old notebooks, I found using the kanji (= Chinese character), "Empty Hand" for karate. Since August 1905, I have been using the kanji "Empty Hand" for karate, such as "Karate Kumite."



Goeku: I would like to make a comment, as I have a relation with Okinawa branch of Dai Nippon Butokukai. Karate was recognized as a fighting art by Okinawa branch of Dai Nippon Butokukai in 1933. At that time, Master Chojun Miyagi wrote karate as "Chinese Hand." We should change his writing "Chinese Hand" into "Empty Hand" at Okinawa branch if we change the Kanji into "Empty Hand." We would like to approve this change immediately and follow procedure, as we need to have approval of the headquarters of Dai Nippon Butokukai.



Ota: Mr. Chomo Hanashiro is the first person who used the kanji "Empty Hand" for karate in 1905. If something become popular in Tokyo, it will automatically become popular and common in other part of Japan. Maybe Okinawan people do not like changing the kanji (= Chinese character) of karate. But we would be marginalized if the word "Chinese Hand" is regarded as a local thing, while the word "Empty Hand" is regarded as a common name for karate as a Japanese fighting art. Therefore we had better use the word "Empty Hand" for karate.



Nakasone: So far the speakers are those who have been living in Okinawa for a long time. Now I would like to have a comment from Mr. Sato, the director of the School Affairs Office. He came to Okinawa recently.



Sato: I have almost no knowledge about karate, but I think the word "Empty Hand" is good, as the word "Chinese Hand" is groundless according to the researchers.



Furukawa: The kanji written as "Empty Hand" is attractive for us who came from outside Okinawa, and we regard it as an aggressive fighting art. I was disappointed when I saw the kanji "Chinese Hand" for karate.



Nakasone: This time, I would like to have a comment from Mr. Fukushima, the Lieutenant of the Regimental Headquarters.



Fukushima: The kanji "Empty Hand" for karate is appropriate. The kanji "Chinese Hand" for karate is difficult to understand for those who do not know karate.



Ota: There is no one who do not like the word "Empty Hand" for karate, but

there are people who do not like the word "Chinese Hand" for karate.



Chojun Miyagi: Well, when I visited Hawaii, Chinese people there seemed to have friendly feeling toward the word "Chinese Hand" for karate.



Shimabukuro: Here in Okinawa, we used to call "Tii" or "Te" for karate. To differentiate from it, we called "Toodii" or "Tode" for karate that was brought from China.



Nakasone: I think we have almost made clear about the name of karate. Now we would like to discuss about the promotion of karate. It is regrettable that karate is no popular in Okinawa at present. We need to find a solution to promote karate in the fields of physical education and martial arts education.



Furukawa: There are a lot of Ryu or styles in karate now. I think we have to unify them at any cost. I hear there are small differences between Shuri style karate and Naha style karate. I think both styles should be unified and  we should make Kata of Japanese Karate-do. In the old days, we had about 200 styles of Kendo (= swordsmanship), but now they have been unified and we have the standard Kata of Japanese Kendo. I think karate would become popular all over the country if we had the unified Kata. For example, we can newly establish ten Kata as Japanese Karate. The name of each Kata should be changed into Japanese, such as Junan-No-Kata (soft and stretch kata), Kogeki-No-Kata (= offensive kata) and so on. In this way, we can conform the name of Kata to its content. And I also think we should make karate a competitive sport, so we should study how to hold a game of karate. We would like to make a uniform of karate and standardize contents and forms.



Chojun Miyagi: I agree to your opinion. With regard to Kata of karate, I ever submitted the opinion with explanation to the headquarters of Dai Nippon Butokukai (= national fighting arts association), when its Okinawa branch was established. As to karate clothes, we also would like to make karate uniform soon as we often have problems. As for terminology of karate, I think we will have to control it in the future. I am also advocating it, and I have been making new technical words and promoting them. Regarding Kata,  I think traditional Kata should be preserved as old or classic Kata For the nationwide promotion of karate, I think we had better create new Kata. We will create both offensive and defensive Kata which are suitable for students of primary schools, high schools, universities and youth schools. Mainly, we, the members of Shinkokai (= karate promotion association), will make new Kata and promote them throughout Japan. Now there are Physical Education Association and Okinawa Branch of Butokukai. We also have senior students of karate and those who are interested in karate. We, therefore, cooperate with them to study and promote karate. If such organizations and experts study karate thoroughly, we can make a decision about the karate name issue and karate uniform relatively soon. I think the old Kata should be preserved without any modification while new Kata should be invented, otherwise I am convinced that no one will be interested in karate any longer in the world in the future.



Ota: How many karate organizations are there in Okinawa at present?



Chojun Miyagi: There are Okinawa Branch of Dai Nippon Butokukai, Physical Education Association of Okinawa Prefecture and Physical Education Association of Shuri City.



Ota: Mr. Chibana, how many students do you have now at your karate dojo?



Choshin Chibana: I have about 40 students at my karate dojo.



Chojun Miyagi: There is an opinion insisting that there are two Ryu or styles in karate, namely, Shorin-Ryu and Shorei-Ryu. I think such an opinion is wrong or false, as there is no evidence at all. However, if we have two styles in karate, we can categorize them by their teaching methods. In one style, they do not even differentiate between Fundamental Kata (= Kata such as Sanchin, Tensho and Naifanchi) and Kaishu Kata (= Kata other than Sanchin, Tensho and Naifanchi). They teach karate unsystematically and unmethodically. In the other style, they differentiate between Fundamental Kata and Kaishu Kata clearly. They teach karate systematically and methodically. My teacher (= Master Kanryo Higaonna) taught me karate in the way of the latter.



Ota: Karate masters we know did not go to China to study karate.



Chojun Miyagi: I have heard that Master Matsumura went to China and practiced karate there.



Choshin Chibana: Our teacher taught us Naifanchi as a Fundamental Kata.



Ota: Mr. Motobu, who taught you karate?



Choki Motobu: I learned karate from Master Itosu, Master Sakuma and Master Matsumora of Tomari village.



Ota: I thought you created your own karate on your own without learning from karate masters.



Choki Motobu: (laughing) No, I did not create my karate on my own.



Nakasone: Now we know every karate masters have agreed to the plan to establish a karate promotion association. As Mr. Furukawa told us the necessity of founding a karate promotion association, we think the other people also seem to agree to this plan. So we would like the members to start the preparation for establishing it.


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